The detailed explanation is below the pictures.
Cappadocia which is unique in the world and is a miraculous nature wonder is the common name of the field covered by the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir in the Central Anatolian region. The Cappadocian Region, with its valley, canyon, hills and unusual rock formation created as a result of the eroding rains and winds of thousands of years of the level, lava-covered plain located between the volcanic mountains Erciyes, Melendiz and Hasan as well as its troglodyte dwellings carved out of the rock and cities dug out into underground, presents an otherworldly appearance. The rivers, flood water running down the hillsides of valleys and strong winds eroded the geological formations consisting of tuff on the plateau formed with tuff layers, thus creating bizarre shapes called fairy Chimneys.
One of the more impressive stops along the one of the oldest trade routes in the world, the Agzikarahan Kerevansarayi is found on the Uzun Yol (Long Road), which used to connect Konya to various other cities and stretched all the way to Persia. The caravanserai, or han, is an architectural form closely associated with the Selcuks. These structures were built to encourage trade along the routes, and to provide for the safety of travellers, a purpose that they served remarkably well. Even today if you travel long distances by land across the Anatolian countryside, you’ll see structures like this one, which pop up as welcoming eye-catchers along otherwise long, barren stretches of road.
If you’re looking to explore Cappadocia in peace, Avanos, less frequented by visitors than nearby Goreme, is a quiet and traditional Turkish town from which it is easy to set out for the land of fairy chimneys and the sights of Cappadocia. Known for its pottery, which is crafted from the red clay of the Kizilirmak River, Avanos is a small and charming town whose rustic streets you can walk in complete calm, or to where you can easily retire after a day of exploration.
A human ant-hill… Derinkuyu, meaning “deep well”, is an amazing underground city burrowed 8 layers deep into the soft volcanic tufa that gives the land around Cappadocia its malleable characteristics. Derinkyuyu is the largest of several underground cities, and was used as a shelter during times of trouble up above, when marauding armies thirsty for conquest were an all too familiar occurrence in this part of the world. As you duck around a maze of subterranean rooms and question whether or not you’re claustrophobic, you may be surprised, or horrified, to know that the entire town, livestock and all, would fit into and hide in these underground cities. These extensive maze-like dwellings offer a truly fascinating glimpse into the resourcefulness and hardiness of the people who inhabited this land in much less certain times.
Goreme Open Air Museum
The valley created from volcanic rocks is famous with the chimney rocks resulting from the erosion made by the natural factors to these rocks and with the historical richness. It has been an important religious place together with the intensive emigration of the first Christians escaping from the pressure of the Roman soldiers. The population escaped from the pressures has made many abbeys, churches and houses in the volcanic rocks from the valley where they were able to hidden easily.
Kaymakli Underground City
Kaymakli underground city is on the Ihlara valley roadway and 20 km far from Nevsehir province. Ancient name was Enegup. Kaymakli people were built their homes around the underground city tunnels for security reason. Kaymakli underground city has 8 storeys and 5000 peoples can live in it, 4 storeys are open yet. The deepest point of the visit is less than 20 meters. Kaymakli was built in around a main ventilation chimney. Ventilation system is so successful that not feel a problem even the fourth floor.
This valley is situated 40km from Aksaray and can be reached making a turn at the 11th km of the Aksaray-Nevsehir road. The canyon was created by the cracking and collapsing which occurred as a result of basalt and andesite lava from Mt. Hasandag’s eruption. The Melendiz River found its way through these cracks, eroding the canyon bed and helping to form canyon we see today. The Melendiz River used to be called “Potamus Kapadukus”meaning the River of Cappadocia.
Ever wonder where it was that St. Symeon sat on atop a pillar for all those years…? Also known as the “Valley of the Hermits”, this veritable orchard of fairy chimneys was once favored by some very solitary monks, as the name suggests. One of them, St. Symeon Stylites, a Byzantine saint, gained his fame by sitting atop one of these three-story pillars for 37 long years before deciding to move on. If you like, perch yourself atop one of the more manageable pillars, or a stool for that matter, and see if anyone offers to bring you lunch. If not, we recommend that you move on. The average Joe is just not suited for hermitry. But this is where the all-star pillar sitters came, so it may be worth a try- at least for a little while.
You will find this quiet Cappadocian village at the heart of Anatolia to be a real treasure, filled with old churches, stone houses, beautiful landscapes, and lovely little pensions. The official name the Republic gives to this town is Mustafapasa, although, like some other locations in Turkey, word seems not to have gotten out to the residents, who continue to use the old name. Once inhabited by a primarily Greek population, this town retains some of that character, though most of the Greeks were obliged to leave in the population swap of 1923.
Uchisar is a terrific spot from which to get gorgeous, undisturbed views of the Cappadocian landscape. This quiet little town, set up in the shadow of a huge rock tower and a Medieval fortress, today has a quiet village feel. You will find it a very pleasing place from which to explore the enchanting countryside.
Once a monastic settlement for hermit monks, the town of Zelve is home to tunnels, cave-dwellings, and stunning vistas of the Cappadocian countryside. The structures here are a little more eroded than in other parts of the valley, so exploring may be more treacherous than in some of the other Cappadocian
towns. As such, a flashlight is recommended as you explore, since some of the sections popular on tours are actually nearly pitch black and poorly lit. If you look hard enough with the aid of a lighting device, however, you may find that there are some impressive ancient frescoes hidden in the obscurity of the darkness.
A hot-air balloon flight is unique from all other experiences of flight as there is no sensation of motion. Travelling at heights of up to 1500 feet, the feeling is one of peace and tranquility. The earth slowly descends and rotates below you. Within moments after lifting off you become at ease while you effortlessly drift over the treetops and the spectacular Cappadocian landscape. It is like a dream to gently float over the countryside in complete harmony with your surroundings